Louisiana Christian University was founded in Pineville, Louisiana, on October 3, 1906. It is the successor to two earlier Louisiana Baptist schools, Mt. Lebanon University and Keatchie Female College. The first, a men’s school founded in 1852 by the north Louisiana Baptist Convention, was located in the community of Mt. Lebanon. The women’s college, founded in 1857 by the Grand Cane Association of Baptist Churches, was located in the community of Keatchie. After a history beset by financial difficulties, both schools came under control of the State Baptist Convention in 1899. An Education Commission was selected by the state convention to administer the schools with the understanding that both would be succeeded by a more centrally located college as soon as a suitable campus could be selected. When Louisiana Christian University was opened in 1906, Mt. Lebanon College was closed, followed by Keatchie a few years later. The enrollment of students in 1906 at the opening of the college was nineteen. As of 2006, more than 12,000 have graduated since the college was founded.

Louisiana Christian University was administered by the Education Commission until 1921, when the commission was replaced by a Board of Trustees as called for in a new charter. The first administrative head of Louisiana Christian University was W.F. Taylor, whose title was chairman of the faculty. Since its opening, Louisiana Christian University has had eight presidents: Dr. E.O. Ware, appointed in 1908; Dr. W.C. Friley, in 1909; Dr. Claybrook Cottingham, in 1910; Dr. Edgar Godbold, in 1941; Dr. G. Earl Guinn, in 1951; Dr. Robert L. Lynn, in 1975; Dr. Rory Lee, in 1997; and Dr. Joe Aguillard, in 2005.